Does cerebral edema cause hypernatremia?
Acute hyponatremia or hypernatremia can cause brain damage. Correcting chronic hyponatremia or hypernatremia too aggressively can do the same. A rapidly falling plasma sodium concentration causes cerebral edema; a rapidly rising concentration causes osmotic demyelination (1).
What happens to the brain in hypernatremia?
Brain shrinkage induced by hypernatremia can cause vascular rupture, with cerebral bleeding, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and permanent neurologic damage or death. Brain shrinkage is countered by an adaptive response that is initiated promptly and consists of solute gain by the brain that tends to restore lost water.
Can hyponatremia cause cerebral edema?
When hyponatremia occurs, the resulting decrease in plasma osmolality (with the exception of the rare cases of non-hypoosmotic hyponatremia) causes water movement into the brain in response to the osmotic gradient, thus causing cerebral edema [7,8] (Figure 1b).
Which electrolyte is the biggest cause of cerebral edema?
Accumulation of sodium in the cell causes a rapid uptake of water through osmosis, with subsequent swelling of the cells. The ultimate consequence of cytotoxic edema is the oncotic death of neurons.
Can hypernatremia cause permanent brain damage?
Hypernatremia can be fatal, and may cause permanent brain damage if not treated properly. Some studies suggest the mortality rate may be more than 50% in hospitalized patients affected by the disorder.
What drugs treat cerebral edema?
Mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) are the most commonly used osmotic agents. The relative safety and efficacy of HS and mannitol in the treatment of cerebral edema and reduction of enhanced ICP have been demonstrated in the past decades.
How do doctors treat brain swelling?
Supportive care for brain edema may include any combination of the following: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Providing oxygen through a respirator or in a chamber helps make sure that the blood has enough oxygen in it. IV fluids: Giving fluids and medicine through an IV can keep blood pressure from dropping too low.